Physicians perform hysterectomy – the surgical removal of the uterus – to treat a wide variety of uterine conditions. Each year in the U.S. alone, doctors perform approximately 600,000 hysterectomies, making it the second most common surgical procedure.

Types of hysterectomies

There are various types of hysterectomies that are performed depending on the patient’s diagnosis:

  • Supracervical hysterectomy: removes the uterus, leaves cervix intact
  • Total hysterectomy: removes the uterus and cervix
  • Radical hysterectomy or modified radical hysterectomy: A more extensive surgery for gynecologic cancer that includes removing the uterus and cervix and may also remove part of the vagina, fallopian tubes, ovaries and lymph nodes in order to stage the cancer (determine how far it has spread).

Approaches to hysterectomy

Open approach

Surgeons perform the majority of hysterectomies using an "open" approach, which is through a large abdominal incision. An open approach to the hysterectomy procedure requires a six to 12-inch incision.

When cancer is involved, the conventional treatment has always been open surgery using a large abdominal incision, in order to see and, if necessary, remove related structures like the cervix or the ovaries.

Vaginal hysterectomy

Vaginal hysterectomy is a second approach to hysterectomy, which involves removal of the uterus through the vagina, without any external incision or subsequent scarring. Surgeons most often use this minimally invasive approach if the patient's condition is benign (non-cancerous), when the uterus is normal size and the condition is limited to the uterus.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy

In a laparoscopic hysterectomy the uterus is removed either vaginally or through small incisions made in the abdomen. The surgeon can see the target anatomy on a standard 2D video monitor thanks to a miniaturized camera inserted into the abdomen through the small incisions.

A laparoscopic approach offers surgeons better visualization of affected structures than either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy alone.

Robotic-assisted hysterectomy

Robotic-assisted hysterectomy combines the advantages of conventional open and minimally invasive hysterectomies – but with far fewer drawbacks. Robotic assisted hysterectomy is becoming the treatment of choice for many surgeons worldwide; it enables surgeons to perform surgical procedures with unmatched precision, dexterity and control.

The single-site hysterectomy approach allows the physician to have all the benefits of the robot-assisted procedure and leaves only one small scar in the navel of the patient.

Which is right for me?

Minimally invasive vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies offer potential advantages to patients over open abdominal hysterectomy, including:

  • Reduced risk for complications
  • A shorter hospitalization
  • Faster recovery

However, there are inherent drawbacks. With vaginal hysterectomy, surgeons are challenged by a small working space and lack of view to the pelvic organs.

With laparoscopic hysterectomy, surgeons may be limited in their dexterity and by 2D visualization, potentially reducing the surgeon's precision and control when compared with traditional abdominal surgery.